As a follow-up to the first two activities (Part 1 and Part 2) using paper tools to introduce the patterns of IUPAC nomenclature for hydrocarbons and common classes of organic compounds, this paper tool classroom or out-of-classroom activity covers the two common naming systems used for most of the major organic functional groups. While IUPAC nomenclature is systematic in a way that builds, there are two different types of common naming systems: one for carboxylic acids and the related classes of compounds (esters, amides, aldehydes) and one for the other common classes of organic compounds (alcohols, thiols, ethers, amines, and ketones). Both are included in this simple paper tool.
Write the common names of simple alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, amines, amides, ethers, and thiols.
Medium weight cardstock, 8.5in x 11in
This is the third in a series of activities using paper tools to teach organic nomenclature. Click on each link for Part 1 and Part 2. In Part 3 this paper tool covers the two common naming systems used for most of the major organic functional groups- carboxylic acids and the related classes of compounds (esters, amides, aldehydes) and the second for the other common classes of organic compounds (alcohols, thiols, ethers, amines, and ketones).
It is confusing, but often necessary, to include common names since they are so widely used. To help introduce students to organic nomenclature in a way that clearly summarizes the patterns that exist, a series of paper tools were designed that are easy to print and distribute to every student each semester; students can easily put them in their folder or book. Both PDF and Word documents are available to allow for easy modifications to be made to match the types of compounds covered in a particular course. Because the common names for carboxylic acids involve learning a new "root" for each number of carbon atoms, the Part 3 activity can be modified to include various numbers of carbon atoms. The paper tool in this post can be used as functional groups are studied throughout a semester, or as an overall introduction in one class period. The common names paper tool described in this activity is two-sided with the two types of common naming systems on different sides.
A majority of students surveyed after using these paper tools indicated that the tools helped them understand relationships between structures and names. While most students indicated that they find the paper tools helpful when they first begin naming organic molecules, some students continued to use these tools as a reference while studying.
Print one copy of all three pages of the Organic Functional Groups Common Names Paper Tool for every two students. For best results, choose "actual size" when printing on medium weight cardstock. These can be separated into single tools in advance using a paper trimmer or students can cut them with scissors. They may need to be trimmed slightly depending on the printing to make sure they line up correctly. Assemble according to the photos in Figures 1 (folded), 2 (front side), and 3 (back side) with one staple in the center to hold it together while still allowing each side to slide easily.
|Figure 1||Figure 2||Figure 3||Figure 4||Figure 5|
To use this paper tool, select the correct side based on the class of compound. The front side of the tool is for alcohols, ketones, amines, mercaptans, and ethers. The back side is for carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, and amides. First slide up or down the left side insert to show the correct number of carbons just below Alkyl Group (front side, left column; Figures 2 and 5) or Root (back side, left column; Figure 3 and 4). Slide up or down the right side insert to show the correct functional group just below Functional Group (located on both front and back sides, right column; Figures 2-5). The compound's common name is located just above COMMON NAME (top central of rectangular mid-section) on the side being used. In Figures 2, 3, 4, and 5, the examples are propyl amine, acetic acid, formaldehyde, and ethyl methyl ether respectively. It is important to note that for ketones and ethers the examples are all with "methyl" on one side. This is a limitation of this tool.
Time for practice? A sample page of structures is provided with this activity for students to practice using the paper tool to name a series of compounds with different functional groups.
The time to print the handout is required. The tools can be assembled by the instructor in advance for students, or students can cut and assemble them in class.
Melanie J. Harvey, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Johnson County Community College