General

How strong of acid is Vinegar (Acetic Acid)?

In “How strong an acid is vinegar?” the students explore the nonlinear relationship between the concentration of a weak acid and the pH of the solution. This formative assessment targets the question “how does structure influence reactivity?”  Students need to understand the behavior of strong and weak acids to comprehend phenomena like buffering capacity.

Mt. St. Helens 40 Years Later: Getting More from Soda Volcano Demonstrations

Potential enhancements to soda-based demonstrations of volcanic eruptions are described. Depending on the specific demonstration setup, outgassing of carbonated sodas can represent low-viscosity lava flows or more violent production of pyroclastic materials. These simple demos can be used as stand-alone experiments or in concert with other activities.